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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Nikolaeva, I. (Irina Alekseevna) A historical dictionary of Yukaghir / by Irina Nikolaeva. The book is dedicated to the memory of my father, Aleksej Vasil'evič Nikolaev. Variations that occur in the sources are separated by commas. I also thank Aleksandr Anikin, Uwe Bläsing, Michael Fortescue, Eugene Helimski, and Tapani Salminen for discussing Yukaghir materials and related questions with me. See Abbreviations for explanations of the labels, and Section 2 of the Introduction for descriptions of the sources. Presentation of the data and translations Although Kolyma Yukaghir data are unified on phonological grounds, in some cases I also cite free and idiolectal variants; they are separated with a comma.The modern Tundra Yukaghir materials are taken from published sources, while the modern Kolyma data were obtained through my own fieldwork conducted in the 1980s-1990s. In some cases it is difficult to see whether we are dealing with a compound or a suffix, e.g. If the second component of a compound does not exist independently, it is cited as a separate entry.Although some lacunae are inevitable, the book presents the first fairly comprehensive lexicographic description of Kolyma Yukaghir. If a compound is represented in only one source, for modern Kolyma and Tundra Yukaghir it is given as a whole.In this respect it can be viewed as an attempt to document the lexicon of this highly endangered language. Isolated compounds from other sources are not cited, but their components are treated separately under their respective entries. (3)T morqile broken country with many hills and holes; TD -morxile The TD -morxile is only attested as the second component of an isolated compound, i.e.The dictionary also contains earlier materials starting from the late 17th century, most of which reflect extinct varieties of Yukaghir. a compound which does not have a direct correspondence in other sources. COM - The World's Biggest Porn Tube Site since 2008. Stream, or download among any of our 600,000 porn videos!

® Printed on acid-free paper which falls within the guidelines of the ANSI to ensure permanence and durability. I am very grateful to the Foundation of Endangered Languages for sponsoring this publication. Alternations of vowels 3.4.1 Quantitative alternations 3.4.2. In some cases I have chosen to provide corrected versions of records that are obviously erroneous in square brackets after the abbreviation rect.TvíSSiäity GÍ i Owćt LíQfüftea viii Preface Second, and most importantly, the dictionary provides a reconstruction of Proto-Yukaghir, which has not previously been attempted (but see Nikolaeva 1988). This compound is not given, but TD -morxile is cited together with the independently existing T morqile and is preceded by a hyphen.Proto-Yukaghir is understood as the common ancestor of all known Yukaghir varieties. Where the translations provided in the sources were in a language other than English, I have given English equivalents.Most importantly, each of these sources only describes one Yukaghir idiom. By verbal compounds I mean lexicalized expressions which normally include a verb and a noun in a possessive, case or postpositional form.In contrast, this dictionary presents the different varieties of Yukaghir in comparative format. Proclitics are also separated with a hyphen, while suffixes are not. If a compound is attested in more than one source, it is cited as a group of words in the entry that corresponds to its first component. Note that in most nominal compounds the first component stands in the Genitive in -rt/-d, which does not belong to the stem.

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